tianzhu wrote:Hi TAS
Thank you for your help.
1)I recall that he _____[fell / had fallen]______ into the drain.
2) I recalled that he _____ [fell / had fallen]______ into the drain.
Do we use the Past Perfect Tense had fallen in both cases?
3)Much to Mrs Ong's annoyance, her son ________ broken another antique vase.
Could the answer be has or had depending on the time of happening?
ctct61t has given accurate answers for the all of the questions
We could give the explanations behind why the answers are as such.
Basically in order to understand the use of present tense (eg: fall), present participle (eg: has fallen), past tense (eg: fell) and past participle (eg: had fallen), you can use a timeline.
For the timeline, we will start with the event that happened the most recently.
--1) Present tense (happens presently) --- 2) Present Participle (happened in recent past) ---- 3) Past tense (happened in the past) ---4) Past Participle (happened further back in the past)
So if there are 2 actions in the sentence like the questions you pose, you should always take the timeline into consideration:
1) I recall that he _____ into the drain
(The answer should be fall and not fallen because 'had fallen' is much further in the past then 'fall' and since 'recall' is in the present tense, the action that happened before that must have occurred rather recently)
2) I recalled that he _______ into the drain
(The answer should be had fallen because 'recalled' is in the past tense. The action of falling would definitely happen before the act of recalling. What comes after 'past tense' on the timeline is the 'past participle, hence the answer is 'had fallen)
3) Much to Mrs Ong's annoyance, her son __________ broken another antique vase
(For this question, there is no time frame given and there is only one action in the sentence so both 'has' and 'had' can be accepted)