All About Dyslexia

Discuss issues related to children who have special needs or learning difficulties
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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by swortionery » Wed Jan 30, 2019 5:33 pm

Stany wrote:
Swit Cuppies wrote:Hi!
Great to see many parents here with the same concern.
My son is a dyslexic sitting for his PSLE this year.
Stress is building up on him :(
Hi, my daughter is taking her PSLE 2019. She did not request for the extra time (access arrangements) but with the stress building up. She is thinking about it.

Does any parents know where we can get an assessment asap that's recognised by MOE? Her last assessment was with DAS when she was P3.

Thank you.
Non-private assessments have a long waiting time. My suggestion is to go for a private one like The Gifted Lab. PM me for more info. :)
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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by » Fri Feb 08, 2019 6:15 pm

Happy chinese new year , i thought would return to the forum that gave me so much support . thank you KSP. Last year, 2018 my son took his N level (NA) exam . miraculously he managed to just scrap through to qualify for secondary 5 but he has decided to go to poly instead. my husband and I were hoping he would give sec 5 a shot but we want him to make his own decision. we pray that he will continue to cope in his studies.
My son was always always a very timid and suffered from poor confidence. he was very negative and gave up easily right from kindergarten . he dare not try anything.My husband and I were so frustrated. it pained us to see him like this. struggling and suffering, the school teachers even advised us to enroll him in a special school. we were really at a wits end. any way some years ago as were were surfing through one of the forums ( i can remember if its ksp or motherhood we came across a testimony from one of the mommies about their tutor. Mr PK. he really did a good job by not giving up and building up his confidence. he would always say" give it a try, nothing will happen" slowly my child grades improved. my child never reach the heights of academic excellence but at least he was scoring respectable marks. to cut the story short Mr PK prodded him along until he finally made it to sec 4 NA. it was a arduous journey and I thank Mr PK. so now i am trying to contact this kiasu mommy to thank her. i lost her email. I am not sure but I think her username or email is or or something like that. if you are out there reading this post pls email me at so I can catch up with you and thank you. i might try looking at the other forum or threads

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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by teenmom » Fri May 03, 2019 9:07 pm

I believe there are some schools who are dyslexia-friendly. You may want to check them out. I think MOE may have a list.

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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by walexia98 » Wed May 29, 2019 9:01 pm

Dyslexia is a condition which causes difficulty with reading and writing. The word "dyslexia" which literally means "difficulty with the lexicon" in Greek. It is believed to be a neurological disorder with biochemical and genetic markers[1][2][3]. People are diagnosed as dyslexic when their reading problems cannot be explained by a lack of intellectual ability, inadequate instruction, or sensory problems such as poor eyesight. The term dyslexia can be used to refer to two distinct deficits. It is most often used to describe developmental dyslexia, a learning disorder that is likely present from birth and is not related to any acute form of brain trauma. In contrast, acquired dyslexia (more often referred to as "Alexia") is the loss of reading ability following brain damage.

Developmental dyslexia appears to be the result of differences in affected individuals' neural organization for language and reading. Developmental dyslexia also appears to have a genetic component, such that it can tend to occur in multiple members of the same family. Reading difficulties in dyslexia can vary in their severity. The disorder is not restricted to childhood, but can persist through adulthood. In addition, while early reports suggested dyslexia is more prevalent in boys, more recent studies have indicated it is not sex-linked, and occurs both in boys and girls with equal frequency.

Because writing systems vary across languages, the precise reading difficulties exhibited by individuals with dyslexia will also tend to vary across languages.[citation needed] However, dyslexia is typically marked by difficulty in the speed and efficiency with which an individual reads and writes. It can also be accompanied by other non-reading difficulties such as poor phonological awareness and short-term memory.

Dyslexia is not limited to reversing the order of letters in reading or writing, as is often implied in popular culture; it may, for instance, include unexpected spelling mistakes (including phonetic spelling in English) and unusual syntax, and may be associated with dyscalculia. Most theories focus on non-primary areas in the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe.[4] Studies have linked several forms of dyslexia to genetic markers[5][6][7].

The term Dyslexia was coined in 1884 by R. Berlin [8]. Dyslexia was originally defined as a difficulty with reading and writing that could not be explained by general intelligence. One diagnostic approach is to compare their ability in areas such as reading and writing to that which would be predicted by his or her general level of intelligence. Although a variety of modern methods exist to diagnose and assist dyslexics, the causes and nature of the disease remain largely unknown.

Variations and related disorders
Dyslexia is a learning disorder. Its underlying cause is believed to be a brain-based disorder that influences the ability to read written language. It is diagnosed in individuals who fail to learn to read in the absence of a verbal or nonverbal intellectual impairment, sensory deficit (e.g., a visual deficit or hearing loss), pervasive developmental deficit or a frank neurological impairment. The following disorders are sometimes confused with dyslexia because they can also lead to difficulty reading:

Auditory Processing Disorder is a disorder that affects the ability to encode auditory information. It can lead to problems with auditory working memory and auditory sequencing.
Dyspraxia - a neurological disorder characterized by a marked difficulty in carrying out routine tasks involving balance, fine-motor control, and kinesthetic coordination. Which is most common in dyslexics who also have an attention deficit disorder.
Verbal Dyspraxia - a neurological disorder characterized by marked difficulty in the use of speech sounds, which is the result of an immaturity in the speech production area of the brain.
Dysgraphia - a neurological disorder characterized by distorted and incorrect handwriting.
Dyscalculia - a neurological disorder characterized by a problem with learning fundamentals and one or more of the basic numerical skills. Often people with this disorder can understand very complex mathematical concepts and principles but have difficulty processing formulas and even basic addition and subtraction.
Facts and statistics
Between 5 and 15 percent of the population can be diagnosed as suffering from various degrees of dyslexia.

Dyslexia can be substantially compensated for with proper therapy, training and equipment.

The current consensus is that dyslexia occurs in both sexes with equal frequency. It was previously reported more frequently in males, likely due to selection factors and bias.

Dyslexia's main manifestation is a difficulty in developing reading skills in elementary school children. Those difficulties result from reduced ability to associate visual symbols with verbal sounds. While motivational factors must also be reviewed in assessing poor performance, dyslexia is considered to be present from birth. Most scientific criteria for dyslexia exclude cases that can be explained as arising from environmental factors such as lack of education or sensory deficits.

Although they are different disorders, dyslexia co-occurs with attention deficit disorder (ADD or ADHD) at a rate of 30-50%.

Physiology and treatment
Only traditional educational remedial techniques have any record of improving the reading ability of those diagnosed with dyslexia [9]. There is no evidence that colored lenses, any visual training, or similar proposed treatments are of any use. Anecdotal reports of success can be explained by other factors.

Even a few weeks of intense phonological training (often involving breaking down and rearranging sounds to produce different words) can help noticeably improve reading skills. The earlier the phonological regimen is taken on, the better the overall result. Advanced brain scans could identify children at risk of dyslexia before they can even read, although it is thought that simple tests of balance could do the same. It is claimed that many of the underlying causes of dyslexia are of a genetic nature and that there are no cures, only strategies to work around the causes of a person's dyslexia, however these two claims are disputed.

It had been believed that keeping a child active, perhaps by giving them housework, or performing physical exercises, would help with dyslexia. However, this is false [10]. There is no scientific evidence in support of this theory.

Researchers studying the brains of dyslexics have found that during reading tasks, dyslexics show reduced activity in the left inferior parietal cortex. It is anecdotally claimed that it is not that uncommon for dyslexics who have trained themselves to cope with their affliction to develop uncannily efficient visual memories which aid in reading and comprehending large quantities of information much faster than is typical. Individuals with dyslexia commonly show 10 times more brain activity when reading. Sometimes, depending of the type and extent, also writing, listening and speaking. However, increased brain activity is not necessarily a sign of better processing. Conversely, some dyslexics may show a natural dislike of reading and, in consequence, compensate by developing unique verbal communication skills, inter-personal expertise, visual-spatial abilities and leadership skills.

In 1979, anatomical differences in the brain of a young dyslexic were documented. Albert Galaburda of Harvard Medical School noticed that the language center in a dyslexic brain showed microscopic flaws known as ectopias and microgyria. Both affect the normal six-layer structure of the cortex. An ectopia is a collection of neurons that have pushed up from lower cortical layers into the outermost one. A microgyrus is an area of cortex that includes only four layers instead of six.

These flaws affect connectivity and functionality of the cortex in critical areas related to auditory processing and visual processing. These and similar structural abnormalities may be the basis of the inevitable and hard to overcome difficulty in reading.

Another study regarding genetic regions on chromosomes 1 and 6 have been found that might be linked to dyslexia. Presenting the argument, dyslexia is a conglomeration of disorders that all affect similar and associated areas of the cortex.
Effect of Language Orthography
Some studies have concluded that speakers of languages whose orthography has a strong correspondence between letter and sound (e.g. Korean, Italian and Spanish) suffer less from effects of dyslexia than speakers of languages where the letter is less closely linked to the sound (e.g. English and French). [11]

In one of these studies, reported in Seymour et al.[12], the word-reading accuracy of first-grade children of different European languages was measured. English children had an accuracy of just 40%, whereas among children of most other European languages accuracy was about 95%, with of French and Danish children somewhere in the middle at about 75%; Danish and French are known to have an irregular pronunciation.

However, this does not mean that dyslexia is caused by orthography: instead, Ziegler et al.[13] claim that the dyslexia suffered by German or Italian dyslectics is of the same kind as the one suffered by the English ones, supporting the theory that the origin of dyslexia is biological. However, dyslexia has more pronounced effects on more difficult languages.

mummy so kiasu
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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by mummy so kiasu » Thu Jun 13, 2019 1:22 pm

You may go back to DAS for a review. My girl has did hers recently.

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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by FoundIt » Mon Jun 17, 2019 12:24 am

Hi Fellow-parents and Curiousone,

I don't know if this helps.

But I checked on this school and found the below testimony on their website. ... g-rsc2017/ ... /articles/

They should be able to accept your child if you have obtained approval from the Ministry of Education (MOE). No harm calling this school to check it out. I am a Singaporean and will be enrolling my son (returning from Vietnam to Singapore to study and can't get into any govt schools).

Best of luck :)

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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by mummykoh » Mon Jun 17, 2019 9:02 pm

My Daughter was diagnosed moderately severe dyslexics when she was in Primary 1, however early intervention helped her, and now at P5 she has improved a lot, able to read and write independently, even through traits of dyslexics still exist. What is more important than the academic improvement is that her self confident was boosted. I suppose with family support and school support, kids with special needs still be able to enjoy school.

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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by Schizee14 » Sun Jun 23, 2019 10:15 pm

I feel that Singapore government schools are not really trying their best to help... =(

zac's mum
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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by zac's mum » Tue Jun 25, 2019 1:35 pm

Tech tools that help kids with dyslexia learn. Amazing how it opens up their learning opportunities. Pen and paper exams have been holding these kids back for far far too long. ...

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Re: All About Dyslexia

Post by ZLL » Fri Jul 12, 2019 7:05 pm

Does anybody have good Chinese and or Math tutor for dyslexic kid. I have a hard time looking for one. Hope someone can share with me.

Thank you so much

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